Morus alba
Rosales - Morus alba - 3.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Moraceae
Genus: Morus
Species:
M. alba
Binomial name
Morus alba
L. 1753
Subspecies
  • Morus alba var. alba
  • Morus alba var. multicaulis (Perr.) Loudon
Synonyms[1]
  • Morus atropurpurea Roxb.
  • Morus chinensis Lodd. ex Loudon
  • Morus intermedia Perr.
  • Morus latifolia Poir.
  • Morus multicaulis (Perr.) Perr.
  • Morus tatarica L.

Morus alba, known as white mulberry, common mulberry and silkworm mulberry,[2] is a fast-growing, small to medium-sized mulberry tree which grows to 10–20 m (33–66 ft) tall. It is generally a short-lived tree with a lifespan comparable to that of humans, although there are some specimens known to be more than 250 years old.[3] The species is native to central China[4] and is widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (including United States, Mexico, Australia, Kyrgyzstan, Argentina, Turkey, Iran, India, and many others).[5][6][7][8][9][10]

The white mulberry is widely cultivated to feed the silkworms employed in the commercial production of silk. It is also notable for the rapid release of its pollen, which is launched at greater than half the speed of sound.[11] Its berries are edible when ripe.

Description

Leaves and fruit

On young, vigorous shoots, the leaves may be up to 30 cm (12 in) long, and deeply and intricately lobed, with the lobes rounded. On older trees, the leaves are generally 5–15 cm (2.0–5.9 in) long, unlobed, cordate at the base and rounded to acuminate at the tip, and serrated on the margins. Generally, the trees are deciduous in temperate regions, but trees grown in tropical regions may be evergreen.

The flowers are single-sex catkins; male catkins are 2–3.5 cm (0.8–1.4 in) long, and female catkins 1–2 cm (0.4–0.8 in) long. Male and female flowers are usually found on separate trees although they may occur on the same tree.[12][13] The fruit is 1–1.5 cm (0.4–0.6 in) long; in the species. In the wild it is deep purple, but in many cultivated plants it varies from white to pink. It is sweet but bland, unlike the more intense flavor of the red mulberry and black mulberry. The seeds are widely dispersed in the droppings of birds that eat the fruit.[5][6][14]

The white mulberry is scientifically notable for the rapid plant movement involved in pollen release from its catkins. The stamens act as catapults, releasing stored elastic energy in just 25 μs. The resulting movement is approximately 380 miles per hour (610 km/h), about half the speed of sound, making it the fastest known movement in the plant kingdom.[11]

Taxonomy

Two varieties of Morus alba are recognized:[5]

  • Morus alba var. alba
  • Morus alba var. multicaulis

Cultivation

Mulberry leaves placed on trays with silkworms (Liang Kai's Sericulture c. 1200s)

Cultivation of white mulberry to nourish silkworms began more than 4,700 years ago in China and has since been introduced in other countries. The Ancient Greeks and Romans cultivated the mulberry for silkworms. At least as early as 220 AD, Emperor Elagabalus wore a silk robe.[15] It was introduced into other parts of Europe in the twelfth century and into Latin America after the Spanish conquest in the fifteenth century.[16] In 2002, 6,260 km2 of land were devoted to the species in China.[6]

It has been grown widely from the Indian subcontinent[6] west through Afghanistan and Iran to southern Europe for more than a thousand years for leaves to feed silkworms.[14]

More recently, it has become widely naturalized in disturbed areas such as roadsides and the edges of tree lots, along with urban areas in much of North America, where it hybridizes readily with the locally native red mulberry (Morus rubra). There is now serious concern for the long-term genetic viability of the red mulberry because of extensive hybridization in some areas.[17]

The species is now extensively planted and widely naturalized throughout the warm temperate world and in subarctic regions as well, and would survive in elevations as high as 4,000 metres (13,000 ft). They thrive in mildly acidic, well drained, sandy loam and clayey loam soils. Though they can withstand poor soils as well.[16]

Uses

Ppongnip-cha (mulberry leaf tea)

White mulberry leaves are the preferred feedstock for silkworms, and are also cut for food for livestock (cattle, goats, etc.) in areas where dry seasons restrict the availability of ground vegetation. The leaves are prepared as tea in Korea. The fruit are also eaten, often dried or made into wine.[6][14]

For landscaping, a fruitless mulberry was developed from a clone for use in the production of silk in the U.S. The industry never materialized, but the mulberry variety is now used as an ornamental tree where shade is desired without the fruit.[18]

A weeping[when defined as?] cultivar of white mulberry, Morus alba 'Pendula', is a popular ornamental plant.[19] It was planted at several grand stations built along the Lackawanna Railroad in New Jersey during the late 1800s and early 1900s. The species has become a popular lawn tree across the desert cities of the southwestern United States, prized for its shade and also for its cylindrical berry clusters composed of sweet, purplish-white fruits.[20] The plant's pollen has become problematical in some cities where it has been blamed for an increase in hay fever.[21][22][23]

Medicinal

Various extracts from Morus alba including kuwanon G, moracin M, steppogenin-4′-O-β-D-glucoside and mulberroside A have been suggested as having a variety of potentially-useful medical effects.[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] Cyanidin-3-O-beta-ᴅ-glucopyranoside and Sanggenon G extracted from Morus alba were studied in animals models for some effects on the central nervous system, but clinical trials are necessary to confirm the effects.[35]

Morus alba is a traditional Chinese medicine that contains alkaloids and flavonoids that are bioactive compounds.[36][37] Studies have shown that these compounds may help reduce high cholesterol, obesity, and stress.[38]

In popular culture

  • In the 14th century Chinese historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, the big morus alba tree is said to be in Liu Bei's house.
  • 1986 Korean erotic film Mulberry takes the name of the tree as the title.
  • Chinese Chengyu 沧海桑田or桑田碧海, translated as "the sea has become farmland" or "farmland has turned into a sea" is figuratively used to describe things that have drastically changed.

See also

  • Blackberry which looks similar

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "Morus alba L.". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew – via The Plant List.
  2. ^ Morus alba L. by Weeds of Australia - Biosecurity Queensland Edition (Queensland Government)
  3. ^ "The thickest, tallest, and oldest white mulberry trees (Morus alba)".
  4. ^ "Morus alba L." Plants Of the World Online. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  5. ^ a b c Wu, Zhengyi; Zhou, Zhe-Kun; Gilbert, Michael G. "Morus alba". Flora of China. 5. Retrieved 27 June 2013 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  6. ^ a b c d e Suttie, J.M. (undated). FAO Report: Morus alba L.
  7. ^ Wunderlin, Richard P. (1997). "Morus alba". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 3. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  8. ^ "Morus alba". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014.
  9. ^ Atlas of Living Australia, Morus alba L., White Mulberry[permanent dead link]
  10. ^ SEINet, Southwestern Biodiversity, Arizona chapter photos, description, distribution map
  11. ^ a b Taylor, Philip; Gwyneth Card; James House; Michael Dickinson; Richard Flagan (2006-03-01). "High-speed pollen release in the white mulberry tree, Morus alba L". Sexual Plant Reproduction. 19 (1): 19–24. doi:10.1007/s00497-005-0018-9. S2CID 39703983.
  12. ^ Schaffner, John H. 1919. The nature of the diecious condition in Morus alba and Salix amygdaloides. Ohio Journal of Science 18: 101-125.
  13. ^ Purdue University. Center for New Crops & Plant Products. NewCROP: Morus alba.
  14. ^ a b c Bean, W. J. (1978). Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. John Murray ISBN 0-7195-2256-0.
  15. ^ Lyle, Katie Letcher (2010) [2004]. The Complete Guide to Edible Wild Plants, Mushrooms, Fruits, and Nuts: How to Find, Identify, and Cook Them (2nd ed.). Guilford, CN: FalconGuides. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-59921-887-8. OCLC 560560606.
  16. ^ a b White mulberry (Morus alba) by Feedipedia.org
  17. ^ Burgess, K.S., Morgan, M., Deverno, L., & Husband, B. C. (2005). Asymmetrical introgression between two Morus species (M. alba, M. rubra) that differ in abundance. Molec. Ecol. 14: 3471–3483.
  18. ^ Howstuffworks.com
  19. ^ "Morus alba". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA.
  20. ^ Little, Elbert L. (1994) [1980]. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees: Western Region (Chanticleer Press ed.). Knopf. p. 424. ISBN 0394507614.
  21. ^ Pollen Library, White Mulberry (Morus alba)
  22. ^ Thermo Scientific,
  23. ^ University of Arizona Cooperative Extension, Yavapai County, Plants That May Cause Allergies in Yavapai County Archived 2016-06-16 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ "Kuwanon G: an antibacterial agent from the root bark of Morus alba against oral pathogens"
  25. ^ Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit in hyperlipidaemia rats Yang X., Yang L., Zheng H. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2010 48:8-9 (2374-2379)
  26. ^ Mulberry fruit protects dopaminergic neurons in toxin-induced Parkinson's disease models. Kim H.G., Ju M.S., Shim J.S., Kim M.C., Lee S.H., Huh Y., Kim S.Y., Oh M.S. The British Journal of Nutrition 2010 104:1 (8-16)
  27. ^ Albanol a from the root bark of Morus alba L. induces apoptotic cell death in HL60 human leukemia cell line Kikuchi T., Nihei M., Nagai H., Fukushi H., Tabata K., Suzuki T., Akihisa T. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2010 58:4 (568-571)
  28. ^ In vivo hypoglycemic effects of phenolics from the root bark of Morus alba Zhang M., Chen M., Zhang H.-Q., Sun S., Xia B., Wu F.-H. Fitoterapia 2009 80:8 (475-477)
  29. ^ Mulberroside A Possesses Potent Uricosuric and Nephroprotective Effects in Hyperuricemic Mice Wang C.-P., Wang Y., Wang X., Zhang X., Ye J.-F., Hu L.-S., Kong L.-D. [Article in Press] Planta Medica 2010
  30. ^ Kim, JK; Kim, M; Cho, SG; Kim, MK; Kim, SW; Lim, YH (2010). "Biotransformation of mulberroside a from Morus alba results in enhancement of tyrosinase inhibition". Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. 37 (6): 631–7. doi:10.1007/s10295-010-0722-9. PMID 20411402. S2CID 21236818.
  31. ^ Adaptogenic effect of Morus alba on chronic footshock-induced stress in rats Nade V.S., Kawale L.A., Naik R.A., Yadav A.V. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2009 41:6
  32. ^ Mulberry leaf extract restores arterial pressure in streptozotocin-induced chronic diabetic rats Naowaboot J., Pannangpetch P., Kukongviriyapan V., Kukongviriyapan U., Nakmareong S., Itharat A. Nutrition Research 2009 29:8 (602-608)
  33. ^ Antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antiglycation activities of mulberry leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced chronic diabetic rats Naowaboot J., Pannangpetch P., Kukongviriyapan V., Kongyingyoes B., Kukongviriyapan U. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 2009 64:2 (116-121)
  34. ^ Neutralization of local and systemic toxicity of Daboia russelii venom by Morus alba plant leaf extract Chandrashekara K.T., Nagaraju S., Usha Nandini S., Basavaiah , Kemparaju K. Phytotherapy Research 2009 23:8 (1082-1087)
  35. ^ Tam, Dao Ngoc Hien; Nam, Nguyen Hai; Elhady, Mohamed Tamer; Tran, Linh; Hassan, Osama Gamal; Sadik, Mohamed; Tien, Phan Thi My; Elshafei, Ghada Amr; Huy, Nguyen Tien (2020-05-07). "Effects of Mulberry on the Central Nervous System: A Literature Review". Current Neuropharmacology. 18 (2): 193–219. doi:10.2174/1570159X18666200507081531. PMC 8033976. PMID 32379591.
  36. ^ Zhang, Hongxia; Ma, Zheng Feei; Luo, Xiaoqin; Li, Xinli (2018-05-21). "Effects of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Consumption on Health Outcomes: A Mini-Review". Antioxidants. 7 (5): 69. doi:10.3390/antiox7050069. ISSN 2076-3921. PMC 5981255. PMID 29883416.
  37. ^ Hussain, Fahad; Rana, Zohaib; Shafique, Hassan; Malik, Arif; Hussain, Zahid (2017-10-01). "Phytopharmacological potential of different species of Morus alba and their bioactive phytochemicals: A review". Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 7 (10): 950–956. doi:10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.015. ISSN 2221-1691.
  38. ^ Metwally, Fateheya Mohamed; Rashad, Hend; Mahmoud, Asmaa Ahmed (March 2019). "Morus alba L. Diminishes visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, behavioral alterations via regulation of gene expression of leptin, resistin and adiponectin in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet". Physiology & Behavior. 201: 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.12.010. ISSN 0031-9384. PMID 30552920. S2CID 54482222.

External links

Data related to Morus alba at Wikispecies

  • USDA Plants Profile for Morus alba white mulberry
  • "Morus alba". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
  • Morton Arboretum: Diagnostic photos of white mulberry tree (acc. 380*82-1)
  • Invasive.org: U.S. National Forest Service, Invasive Species Weed of the Week − Morus alba

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