Celtis australis, commonly known as the European nettle tree, Mediterranean hackberry, lote tree, or honeyberry, is a deciduous tree native to Southern Europe, North Africa, and Asia Minor. The tree was introduced to England in 1796.
The tree can grow to 25 m in height, though 10 m is more common in cooler climates. The bark is smooth and grey, almost elephantine.
The alternate leaves are narrow and sharp-toothed, rugose above and tomentose below, 5-15 cm long and dark grey/green throughout the year, fading to a pale yellow before falling in autumn.
The apetalous wind-pollinated flowers are perfect (hermaphrodite, having both male and female organs), small and green, either singly or in small clusters.
The fruit is a small, dark-purple berry-like drupe, 1 cm wide, hanging in short clusters, and are extremely popular with birds and other wildlife.
A large specimen planted in 1550 stands before the church in the village perché of Fox-Amphoux in the Provence region of southern France. The tree was 18 m in height with a circumference at breast height of 5 m in 2013.
The plant prefers light well-drained (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, including those nutritionally poor; it can tolerate drought but not shade. The Mediterranean climate is especially suitable for the plant but it can tolerate colder climate (USDA Zone 7B). An article on Nettle tree cultivation is brought down in Ibn al-'Awwam's 12th-century agricultural work, Book on Agriculture.
It is often planted as an ornamental as it is long-living and resistant to air pollution. The fruit of this tree is sweet and edible, and can be eaten raw or cooked. The leaves and fruit are astringent, lenitive, and stomachic.
200/500 cc - 10/20 cm
1/2 L - 20/50 cm
2/5 L - 50/100 cm
5/10 L - 1.00/1.50 m
10/15 L - 1.50/2.00 m
15/20 L - PAP 6/8
20/40 L - PAP 8/10
20/40 L - PAP 10/12
20/40 L - PAP 12/14
40/70 L - PAP 14/16
40/70 L - PAP 16/18
40/70 L - PAP 18/20
70/90 L - PAP 20/25